The style started to spread made mainly by local architects:
Origins and Background The varied and often contradictory artistic forms of the nineteenth century and the absence of a general continuous artistic development can be understood only by taking into consideration the political and economic events of that period, which completely changed the social and intellectual structure of Europe, as well as the history of art.
The French Revolution ended the traditional supremacy of kings and princes, but this gain of freedom meant a loss of inner security. With the end of Absolutism new leaders were needed to give intellectual guidance and take political responsibility.
Although the slogan "liberty, equality, fraternity" was understood everywhere in Europe, the general political unrest showed that it was easier to formulate an idea than to carry it out. The revolutionaries had thought that the bourgeoisie would replace the aristocracy as the ruling class, but the transition from subject to self-governing citizen was not an easy one and frequently resulted in a new form of absolute power, exemplified by the rise of the citizen Napoleon to Emperor of France.
Towards the middle of the eighteenth century, when social conventions had become governed by a strictly stylized etiquette, representatives of the Sturm und Drang movement vehemently rejected the superficiality of contemporary life.
The Age of Enlightenment had relied on the power of the intellect, but this was now being challenged by the 'natural genius'. The stiff, bewigged Rococo cavalier was replaced by the man who wanted to give direct expression to his feelings.
This emphasis on the emotions found its ultimate expression in Romanticismwhich, particularly in Germany, dominated literature and the fine arts until well into the second half of the nineteenth century.
A balance to this unrestrained emotionalism was provided by a simultaneous revival of neoclassical artchampioned in Germany by Anton Raphael Mengs and, in France, by Jacques-Louis David. Neoclassicism Johann Joachim Winckelmannwho led the first excavations at Pompeii, published his History of Ancient Art in and thereby helped to initiate the Classical revival.
In this work, which was translated into every European language, he compared 'the confusion of forms, the immoderation of expression and the bold fire' of Baroque art with the 'noble simplicity and tranquil greatness of the ancient Greeks', whom, he suggested, were the only models worthy of imitation.
He also pointed out the lack of stability and order of the Sturm und Drang in comparison with the balanced harmony of Classical art.
Goethe was much influenced by the Classical spirit as is evident from the change of emphasis in his work after his first journey to Italy.
The Classical and the Romantic spirits constituted two opposing poles between which the arts fluctuated with searching uncertainty.
The reason for this uncertainty was the loss of that solid framework which the monarchical and ecclesiastic hierarchies had provided up to the end of the Rococo. The emerging middle classes, in an attempt to assert themselves, began to take an interest in their national history and in the artistic achievements of the recent past.
But while this preoccupation with the ancient Greeks, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance provided a wealth of models, it also created a new dependence and prevented the development of original ideas which could interpret contemporary events and give artistic expression to the spirit of the time.
This lack of original ideas partly explains the absence of a general artistic style, but another factor must also be taken into account. After the aristocratic hierarchy had broken down and the Church had ceased to be such a powerful institution, there was no single authority to set a trend and style in the arts by commissioning large works of religious art for churches and other public buildings.
The new patrons were individual members of the middle classes, and monumental works of art were therefore replaced by those more suited to the private requirements and limited means of the individual. Architecture therefore gradually lost its prominent position among the fine arts and painting took the leading role.
No other period in history is characterized by such architectural poverty as the nineteenth century. As painting became more and more orientated towards private patrons, it lost contact with the broader public and developed in isolation, often in opposition to public opinion.
Artists refused to make concessions and the public, not understanding their pictures, refused to buy them. In the past painters had enjoyed general approval and were celebrated and promoted by an art-loving community; now they became outsiders for whom the general public felt at best pity, but mostly only disdain.
The underrated artist took his revenge by turning against society, either with sharp criticism or by deliberate aesthetic provocation, with an art for art's sake. Thus an unfortunate gulf developed between artist and society which has continued to widen to this day and has caused countless misunderstandings between the creative artist and the middle-class public.
German Neoclassical Architecture This change was a gradual one, though, and architecture still retained its leading role among the fine arts during the early part of the nineteenth century.
Neoclassical architecture replaced the frivolous style of the Rococo and strove towards a new beginning.
While the Renaissance had been inspired by ancient Roman works of art, Classicism returned to the original sources of all Classical art and took its models from the ancient Greeks.
But a faithful imitation of architectural forms and details could not be regarded as a new style heralding the future and it could not lead to a new beginning; it merely represented a return to the forms of the past. Although Classicism was hailed as a manifestation of middle-class republican opinion, it in fact owed its origins to an elite, no longer the aristocratic elite, but an intellectual elite, the Humanists, the exponents of the Classical revival.
Therefore Classicism cannot be regarded as an expression of middle-class ideals; it was at best an aesthetic revolution, a declaration of war on the Rococo.
Heavily ornamented facades were out of favour and buildings with clearly defined outlines and smooth, sober wall surfaces were once again preferred.
The column was considered the noblest of architectural forms; it was placed in solemn rows along the facades and surmounted by triangular pediments. This design, which is modelled on that of the Classical temple, remained an architectural feature all through the century.
Friedrich Weinbrenner's Classicist church at Karlsruhe is enriched by a portico that carries a broad entablature which is decorated by garlands and continues around the building, whereas the columns, in the manner of a Greek prostyle, are limited to the facade.
No connection whatsoever exists between the actual structure of this very conventional church and its Classical outer appearance; the interior in no way corresponds to the exterior which has been merely 'dressed up' in the manner of a temple and thereby expresses the main preoccupation of the time, that of creating a dignified impression.home,page-template,page-template-full_width,page-template-full_width-php,page,page-id,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,qode-title-hidden,columns-3,qode-theme-ver I.
Introduction. This essay briefly describes the transition between the Baroque and Classical forms, presents some of the parallel world events, and discusses baroque and classical characteristics.
biography. The Benedictine monk and architect Dom Hans van der Laan was a self-made man in the sense that he followed his own path. In architecture he sought answers for questions nobody around him asked. Materials, Form, and Architecture [Richard Weston] on kaja-net.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
After a century largely dominated by discussions of space and form, there is now renewed interest in the material and tectonic aspects of architecture.
This richly illustrated and handsomely designed book takes a detailed and timely look at the importance of materials in architecture. Let us briefly look into the meaning of Architecture- according to Vitruvius, a Roman Architect, Architecture is a multi disciplinary field, including within its fold Mathematics, Science, Art, Technology, Social Sciences, Politics, History, Philosophy and so on.
Death, divorce, marriage, retirement, career changes, empty-nesting, moving Whether we instigate a stressful event or feel like the victim of one, navigating the transitional waters of change is hard.