Commentary on popular culture and society, from a mostly psychological perspective Sunday, June 18, Walking on Eggshells:
Most people are aware of the basics of the guild system: In addition, members pooled their resources and took care of members who were unable to work, or the widows and orphans of members who had died.
These were the Craft Guilds. Merchant guilds policed themselves and highly regulated business and trade in the Middle Ages. Buying and selling was tightly regulated by the merchant guilds, in accord with the charters granted to them by city officials, throughout the Middle Ages.
In tracing [the] history [of the guilds] we find the merchant guilds, the prototypes of the modern corporations; the religious guilds, the prototypes of modern church societies; the social guilds, the prototypes of Masonic, Odd Fellow and kindred organizations; the craft guild, the predecessor of the modern trades-unions; and finally, guilds of lawyers, and guilds of litterateurs and artists.
As we learned in our study of the feasting theoryfeasting and food-sharing appears to be inherent in the human species, and it likely enhanced cooperation among social groups allowing the formation of complex societies.
Feasting events may have contributed to the formation of classes and inequality out of smaller, egalitarian band-level societies. The similitude, therefore, if not the exact form of the Guild, has appeared in almost all civilized nations, even at the remotest periods of their own history.
Wherever men accustom themselves to meet on stated occasions, to celebrate some appointed anniversary or festival and to partake of a common meal, that by this regular communion a spirit of fraternity may be established, and every member may feel that upon the association with which he is thus united he may depend for relief of his necessities of protection of his interests, such an association, sodality, or confraternity, call it by whatever name you may, will be in substantial nature a guild.
To not be a member of some sort of larger social group—i. For most of human history, the lone individual was a dead individual. No doubt some people managed an existence on the margins of their society, but these were the exceptions.
Rather, pre-state societies were held together by their descent from a common ancestor, and often times the veneration of those same ancestors.
This has been a universal phenomenon known to anthropologists since the late Nineteenth century.
It was the interaction of these various social groups that formed the basis of society. Ancient laws were designed to facilitate interactions and mediate disputes between various groups, NOT to enforce contracts between individuals. Formal contracts between individuals did not exist nor were they needed ; rather your social behavior towards others was dictated primarily by kinship actual or fictive —father to son, wife to husband, uncle to nephew; cousin to cousin; slave to master; patron to client, and so on.
Private and public interactions were mediated by social status—people knew what to expect of one another based on their relative social position.
As people agglomerated in ever-larger groups due to population growth, eventually laws and behaviors needed to become more formalized by the rulers. Originally, ancient laws were oral codes, but over time they increasingly came to be written down. I plan to take this up in much more depth in future posts, but for now, this quotation should give us a good illustration of the concept: In his [book] Early Institutions [Henry S.
Maine] subjects the Brehon Laws of early Ireland to a suggestive examination as presenting an example of Celtic law largely unaffected by Roman influences.Papua or British New Guinea, by J H P Murray, free ebook. SUGAR, SALT, FAT Our world, as a whole, is facing great challenges that affect our current and long-term health.
We are stuck on the availability of processed food and need to break this vicious cycle that we are in.
We need to take responsibility for ourselves and stop blaming it on consumerism. Ah, but super-human AI is not the only way Moloch can bring our demise.
How many such dangers can your global monarch identify in time?
EMs, nanotechnology, memetic contamination, and all the other unknown ways we’re running to the bottom. Salt, sugar, fat: how the food giants hooked us / Michael Moss.
p. cm. James Behnke was all too familiar with the power of salt, sugar, and fat, having spent twenty-six years at Pillsbury under six chief executive officers.
A chemist by training with a doctoral degree in food science, he. ENGLISH - VENDA kaja-net.com - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.  See Dennis Lee's The Alternative, exhibit 1B.
D eputy Attorney General sent Dennis the evidence that she needed to make the consumer protection charge stick. Dennis was marketing his heat pump under his Systems for Savings plan, where the customer only .