Thomas Jefferson closely followed European ideas and later incorporated some of the ideals of the Enlightenment into the Declaration of Independence One of his peers, James Madisonincorporated these ideals into the United States Constitution during its framing in Published between and in thirty-five volumes, it was compiled by Diderot, d'Alembert until and a team of scientists and philosophers. It helped spread the ideas of the Enlightenment across Europe and beyond.
The two main forms of the relationship between church and state that have been predominant and decisive through the centuries and in which the structural difference between the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodoxy becomes most evident can best be explained by comparing the… Nature of theology The concept of theology that is applicable as a science in all religions and that is therefore neutral is difficult to distill and determine.
The problem lies in the fact that, whereas theology as a concept had its origins in the tradition of the ancient Greeks, it obtained its content and method only within Christianity.
Thus, theology, because of its peculiarly Christian profile, is not readily transferable in its narrow sense to any other religion. In its broader thematic concerns, however, theology as a subject matter is germane to other religions.
The Greek philosopher Platowith whom the concept emerges for the first time, associated with the term theology a polemical intention—as did his pupil Aristotle.
For Plato, theology described the mythicalwhich he allowed may have a temporary pedagogical significance that is beneficial to the state but is to be cleansed from all offensive and abstruse elements with the help of political legislation.
This identification of theology and mythology also remained customary in later Greek thought. In spite of all the contradictions and nuances that were to emerge in the understanding of this concept in various Christian confessions and schools of thought, a formal criterion remains constant: Here, then, the above indicated difficulty becomes apparent.
In this sense it is not neutral and is not attempted from the perspective of removed observation—in contrast to a general history of religions. The implication derived from the religious approach is that it does not provide a formal and indifferent scheme devoid of presuppositions within which all religions could be subsumed.
In the second place, theology is influenced by its origins in the Greek and Christian traditions, with the implication that the transmutation of this concept to other religions is endangered by the very circumstances of origination.
If one nonetheless speaks of theology in religions other than Christianity or Greek religionone implies—in formal analogy to what has been observed above—the way in which representatives of other religions understand themselves.
The normative element in these religions arises simply out of the authority of a divine teacher or out of a revelation e.
The academic study of religionwhich encompasses also religious psychologyreligious sociologyand the history and phenomenology of religion as well as the philosophy of religionhas emancipated itself from the normative aspect in favour of a purely empirical analysis.
This empirical aspect, which corresponds to the modern conception of science, can be applied only if it functions on the basis of objectifiable empirically verifiable entities.
Revelation of the kind of event that would have to be characterized as transcendenthowever, can never be understood as such an objectifiable entity. Only those forms of religious life that are positive and arise out of experience can be objectified. Wherever such forms are given, the religious person is taken as the source of the religious phenomena that are to be interpreted.
Understood in this manner, the study of religion represents a necessary step in the process of secularization. Nevertheless, it cannot be said that theology and the history of religions only contradict one another.
In this regard, then, there are not only analytical but also theological statements concerning religious phenomena, particularly in regard to the manner in which such statements are encountered in specific primitive or high religions.
Thus, the objects of the history of religions and those of theology cannot be clearly separated. They are merely approached with different categories and criteria. If the history of religions does not surrender its neutrality—since such a surrender would thereby reduce the discipline to anthropology in an ideological sense e.
Relationship to philosophy The relationship of theology to philosophy is much more difficult to determine, because it is much more complicated.The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a philosophical movement that took place primarily in Europe and, later, in North America, during the late 17 th and early 18 th century.
The Enlightenment coincided with the American Revolution, which took place between and Many factors led to the outbreak of the Revolution, but a chief factor was the American colonists' discontent with the British government. The Age of Enlightenment, a phrase coined by the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant (22 April – 12 February ), represents the change from antiquity to modernity, the period in history where the modern world began and science replaced superstition.
enlightenment |en'lîtnment | noun – the action of enlightening or the state of being enlightened: • the action or state of attaining or having attained spiritual knowledge or insight, in particular (in Buddhism) that awareness which frees a person from the cycle of rebirth.
The ideas put forth by the Puritans are not simply an important starting point for American culture because they were the first in the country, but because they offered ways of thinking that are still ingrained in our culture today.
Various aspects of the relationship between religion and science have been cited by modern historians of science and religion, philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others from various geographical regions and cultures.
Even though the ancient and medieval worlds did not have conceptions resembling the modern understandings of "science" and "religion", certain elements of .