Opinions about political candidates or issues Corporate images These sample goals represent general areas. The more specific you can make your goals, the easier it will be to get usable answers. Selecting Your Sample There are two main components in determining whom you will interview. The first is deciding what kind of people to interview.
Introduction to Design What is Research Design? Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue" that holds all of the elements in a research project together.
There are many different types of designs that you will be introduced to, often having rather exotic-sounding if not somewhat obscure! We often describe a design using a concise notation that enables us to summarize a complex design structure efficiently.
What are the "elements" that a design includes? Observations or Measures These are symbolized by an 'O' in design notation.
An O can refer to a single measure e. If you need to distinguish among specific measures, you can use subscripts with the O, as in O1, O2, and so on.
Treatments or Programs These are symbolized with an 'X' in design notations. The X can refer to a simple intervention e. As with observations, you can use subscripts to distinguish different programs or program variations.
Groups Each group in a design is given its own line in the design structure. Assignment to Group Assignment to group is designated by a letter at the beginning of each line i. The major types of assignment are: Elements that are listed on the left occur before elements that are listed on the right.
Design Notation Examples It's always easier to explain design notation through examples than it is to describe it in words. The figure shows the design notation for a pretest-posttest or before-after treatment versus comparison group randomized experimental design. Let's go through each of the parts of the design.
There are two lines in the notation, so you should realize that the study has two groups. There are four Os in the notation, two on each line and two for each group. When the Os are stacked vertically on top of each other it means they are collected at the same time.
In the notation you can see that we have two Os that are taken before i. The R at the beginning of each line signifies that the two groups are randomly assigned making it an experimental design.
The design is a treatment versus comparison group one because the top line treatment group has an X while the bottom line control group does not. You should be able to see why many of my students have called this type of notation the "tic-tac-toe" method of design notation -- there are lots of Xs and Os!
Sometimes we have to be more specific in describing the Os or Xs than just using a single letter. In the second figure, we have the identical research design with some subscripting of the Os.
What does this mean? Because all of the Os have a subscript of 1, there is some measure or set of measures that is collected for both groups on both occasions. But the design also has two Os with a subscript of 2, both taken at the posttest. This means that there was some measure or set of measures that were collected only at the posttest.
With this simple set of rules for describing a research design in notational form, you can concisely explain even complex design structures. And, using a notation helps to show common design sub-structures across different designs that we might not recognize as easily without the notation.There is/was a problem with your internet connection.
Please note that some features may not function properly. Please refresh your browser if your internet. What is Research Design? Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -- it is the "glue" that holds all of the elements in a research project together.
There are many different types of designs that you will be introduced to, often having rather exotic-sounding (if not somewhat obscure!) names like 'the nonequivalent groups design', the 'randomized experimental design', or.
May 16, · Save all document attachments with descriptive filenames of 50 characters or less (including spaces). Use unique filenames for all attachments in an application (or within a component of a multi-project application).
1 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Youth Reproductive Health Project Design and Proposal Writing Guide was developed by the International Youth Foundation as part of the Planning for Life project funded through grant agreement GSM under the USAID GSM Flexible Fund.
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