The University of Manchester; There is scope for research and development into integrated processes utilising synthesis gas for the production of a wide range of hydrocarbons. For this purpose there should be strategies for the development of Fischer-Tropsch processes, which consider both economic and technological feasibilities. This involved development of FT models for both two-phase and three-phase reactors.
The debate on the origins of the First World War Updated Thursday 19th December The way historians have viewed the causes of WWI has changed in the hundred years since war broke out.
How could the death of one man, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was assassinated on 28 Junelead to the deaths of millions in a war of unprecedented scale and ferocity? This is the question at the heart of the debate on the origins of the First World War.
Finding the answer to this question has exercised historians for years. In Julyeveryone in Europe was convinced they were fighting a defensive war. Governments had worked hard to ensure that they did not appear to be the aggressor in July and August This was crucial because the vast armies of soldiers that would be needed could not be summoned for a war of aggression.
Socialists, of whom there were many millions bywould not have supported a belligerent foreign policy and could only be relied upon to fight in a defensive war.
French and Belgians, Russians, Serbs and Britons were convinced they were indeed involved in a defensive struggle for just aims. Austrians and Hungarians were fighting to avenge the death of Franz Ferdinand.
But if not they who had after all invaded Belgium and France in the first few weeks of fightingthen who had caused this war? The war guilt ruling By Edward N.
President Woodrow Wilson For the victors, this was an easy question to answer, and they agreed at the peace conference at Versailles in that Germany and its allies had been responsible for causing the Great War.
Based on this decision, vast reparation demands were made. Sponsored by post-war governments and with access to vast amounts of documents, revisionist historians set about proving that the victors at Versailles had been wrong.
In the interwar years, such views influenced a new interpretation that no longer highlighted German war guilt, but instead identified a failure in the alliance system before With such a conciliatory accident theory, Germany was off the hook.
A comfortable consensus emerged and lasted all through the Second World War and beyond, by which time the First World War had been overshadowed by an even deadlier conflict. The Fischer Thesis The first major challenge to this interpretation was advanced in Germany in the s, where the historian Fritz Fischer published a startling new thesis which threatened to overthrow the existing consensus.
Germany, he argued, did have the main share of responsibility for the outbreak of the war. Moreover, its leaders had deliberately unleashed the war in pursuit of aggressive foreign policy aims which were startlingly similar to those pursued by Hitler in Backed up by previously unknown primary evidence, this new interpretation exploded the comfortable post-war view of shared responsibility.
They attempted to discredit him and his followers in a public debate of unprecedented ferocity. Some of those arguing about the causes of the war had fought in it, in the conviction that they were fighting a defensive war.
Little wonder that they objected to the suggestion that Germany had deliberately started that conflict. Many did concede, however, that Germany seemed to have made use of the July Crisis to unleash a war.
In the wake of the Fischer controversy, historians also focused more closely on the role of Austria-Hungary in the events that led to war, and concluded that in Vienna, at least as much as in Berlin, the crisis precipitated by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was seen as a golden opportunity to try and defeat a ring of enemies that seemed to threaten the central powers.
Recent revisions In recent years this post-Fischer consensus has in turn been revised. After years of debate, every conceivable interpretation seems to have been advanced, dismissed and the revisited. In some of the most recent publications, even seeking to attribute responsibility, as had so confidently been done at Versailles, is now eschewed.
Such doubts did not trouble those who sought to attribute war guilt in and during much of this long debate, but this question will need to be asked as the controversy continues past the centenary.ANALYSIS OF COBALT AND IRON FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS USING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY By Clark David Wilson Blockburger A senior thesis submitted to the faculty kaja-net.com · Diffusion Limitations in Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts The extent of diffusion limitations in the catalytic conversion of syn- thesis gas to hydrocarbons by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction has been established for a number of iron- and cobalt-based catalysts.
The kaja-net.com · FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS USING CO 2-CONTAINING SYNGAS MIXTURES OVER COBALT AND IRON BASED CATALYSTS Yali Yao A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment,kaja-net.com Yao.
for the study of the high temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over an iron catalyst at an H 2 / CO = 10, °C, 6 bar and GHSV = ml(n).gcat hr kaja-net.com · STATISTICAL METHODS FOR KINETIC MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SYNTHESIS ON A SUPPORTED IRON CATALYST by Brian L.
Critchfield A thesis submitted to the faculty kaja-net.com?article=&context=etd. · Fischer–Tropsch synthesis is a set of catalytic processes that can be used to produce fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas (mixture of CO and H 2), which can be derived from natural gas, coal, or kaja-net.com