T - Z Glossary: Free from errors, mistakes, or distortion.
Yet there is general recognition today that history and biography are quite distinct forms of literature. History usually deals in generalizations about a period of time for example, the Renaissanceabout a group of people in time the English colonies in North Americaabout an institution monasticism during the Middle Ages.
Both biography and history, however, are often concerned with the past, and it is in the hunting down, evaluating, and selection of sources that they are akin. In this sense biography can be regarded as a craft rather than an art: A biographer in pursuit of an individual long dead is usually hampered by a lack of sources: No method has yet been developed by which to overcome such problems.
Each life, however, presents its own opportunities as well as specific difficulties to the biographer: Another masterpiece of reconstruction in the face of little evidence is A. A further difficulty is the unreliability of most collections of papers, letters, and other memorabilia edited before the 20th century.
Not only did editors feel free to omit and transpose materials, but sometimes the authors of documents revised their personal writings for the benefit of posterityoften falsifying the record and presenting their biographers with a difficult situation when the originals were no longer extant.
The biographer writing the life of a person recently dead is often faced with the opposite problem: Frank Friedel, for example, in creating a biography of the U. Roosevelthad to wrestle with something like 40 tons of paper.
Psychological Assembling a string of facts in chronological order does not constitute the life of a person; it only gives an outline of events. The biographer who has known his subject in life enjoys the advantage of his own direct impressions, often fortified by what the subject has himself revealed in conversations, and of his having lived in the same era thus avoiding the pitfalls in depicting distant centuries.
Biographers of the 20th century have had at their disposal the psychological theories and practice of Sigmund Freud and of his followers and rivals.
The extent to which these new biographical tools for the unlocking of personality have been employed and the results of their use have varied greatly.
On the one hand, some biographers have deployed upon their pages the apparatus of psychological revelation—analysis of behaviour symbols, interpretation based on the Oedipus complexdetection of Jungian archetypal patterns of behaviour, and the like.
Ethical The biographer, particularly the biographer of a contemporary, is often confronted with an ethical problem: Since the inception of biographical criticism in the later 18th century, this somewhat arid—because unanswerable—question has dominated both literary and popular discussion of biographical literature.
Upon the publication of the Life of Samuel Johnson, James Boswell was bitterly accused of slandering his celebrated subject. Kennedycreated an even greater stir in the popular press. That course in the 20th century is sometimes complicated by the refusal of the custodians of the papers of important persons, particularly national political figures, to provide access to all the documents.
Aesthetic Biography, while related to history in its search for facts and its responsibility to truth, is truly a branch of literature because it seeks to elicit from facts, by selection and design, the illusion of a life actually being lived. Within the bounds of given data, the biographer seeks to transform plain information into illumination.
If he invents or suppresses material in order to create an effect, he fails truth; if he is content to recount facts, he fails art. This tension, between the requirements of authenticity and the necessity for an imaginative ordering of materials to achieve lifelikeness, is perhaps best exemplified in the biographical problem of time.
On the one hand, the biographer seeks to portray the unfolding of a life with all its cross-currents of interests, changing emotional states, events; yet in order to avoid reproducing the confusion and clutter of actual daily existence, he must interrupt the flow of diurnal time and group his materials so as to reveal traits of personality, grand themes of experience, and the actions and attitudes leading to moments of high decision.
His achievement as a biographical artist will be measured, in great part, by his ability to suggest the sweep of chronology and yet to highlight the major patterns of behaviour that give a life its shape and meaning.An overview may also include background information about the topic, about your stand, or about the criteria you will use for evaluation.
The overview and the introduction work together to provide a comprehensive beginning for (a "springboard" into) your review. Some Tips on Titling Your Critical Analysis Essay In the discipline of English, formulating an effective title for your essay matters for few reasons: • A good “working” title helps you to focus your ideas during the writing of the essay.
Over the years, a growing body of evidence indicates that certain cognitive skills are a critical determinant of leader performance.
In the present effort we show that application of these skills is typically founded in case-based knowledge. Consensus guidelines for EGPA diagnosis and management are still lacking. • Twenty-three disease experts used a modified Delphi process. • Twenty-two diagnostic, evaluation, and treatment recommendations were retained.
Leadership Midterm Review. quizzes STUDY. This type of evaluation is referred to as: (Points: 1) the nurse reviews the critical elements, which consist of: (Points: 1) essential principles that must be incorporated into the assessment that are established by practice standards.
8. An RN with a diploma preparation wants to. Old English literature, or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses the surviving literature written in Old English in Anglo-Saxon England, in the period after the settlement of the Saxons and other Germanic tribes in England (Jutes and the Angles) c.
, after the withdrawal of the Romans, and "ending soon after the Norman Conquest" in These works include genres such as epic poetry.