Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy There are actually several kinds of Cognitive-Behavioral therapies spelled behavioural in British Englishand they all employ the same general premise:
Schemas Imagine what it would be like if you did not have a mental model of your world. It would mean that you would not be able to make so much use of information from your past experience or to plan future actions. Schemas are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world.
Wadsworth suggests that schemata the plural of schema be thought of as 'index cards' filed in the brain, each one telling an individual how to react to incoming stimuli or information. When Piaget talked about the development of a person's mental processes, he was referring to increases in the number and complexity of the schemata that a person had learned.
When a child's existing schemas are capable of explaining what it can perceive around it, it is said to be in a state of equilibrium, i. Piaget emphasized the importance of schemas in cognitive development and described how they were developed or acquired.
A schema can be defined as a set of linked mental representations of the world, which we use both to understand and to respond to situations. The assumption is that we store these mental representations and apply them when needed. For example, a person might have a schema about buying a meal in a restaurant.
The schema is a stored form of the pattern of behavior which includes looking at a menu, ordering food, eating it and paying the bill. This is an example of a type of schema called a 'script.
The schemas Piaget described tend to be simpler than this - especially those used by infants. He described how - as a child gets older - his or her schemas become more numerous and elaborate. Piaget believed that newborn babies have a small number of innate schemas - even before they have had many opportunities to experience the world.
These neonatal schemas are the cognitive structures underlying innate reflexes. These reflexes are genetically programmed into us. For example, babies have a sucking reflex, which is triggered by something touching the baby's lips. A baby will suck a nipple, a comforter dummyor a person's finger.
Piaget, therefore, assumed that the baby has a 'sucking schema. Shaking a rattle would be the combination of two schemas, grasping and shaking. Assimilation and Accommodation Jean Piaget ; see also Wadsworth, viewed intellectual growth as a process of adaptation adjustment to the world.Cognitive psychology focuses on the way people process information.
In this lesson, you will gain an overview of the field of cognitive psychology and learn about prominent theories. Different approaches to psychotherapy Psychologists generally draw on one or more theories of psychotherapy.
A theory of psychotherapy acts as a roadmap for psychologists: It guides them through the process of understanding clients and their problems and developing solutions.
The more-or-less pure cognitive therapies—such as Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Therapy, focus on changing certain thought patterns. The premise, in Beck’s words, is that “the way we perceive situations influences how we feel emotionally,” and so by changing thoughts, then behaviors will also change.
In the field of psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or kaja-net.com discomfort is triggered by a situation in which a belief of a person clashes with new evidence perceived by that person.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is, in fact, an umbrella term for many different therapies that share some common elements. Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T.
Beck in the kaja-net.com: Saul Mcleod. Piaget's () theory of cognitive development explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world. He disagreed with the idea that intelligence was a fixed trait, and regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment.