The presence of diabetes, cardiac arrhythmias, and darkening of the skin should all increase the index of suspicion. It is a time-honored observation that many patients with clinical hemochromatosis abuse alcohol. Thus, it is a mistake to assume that cirrhosis and diabetes is merely the result of excess alcohol intake. Such patients should be considered candidates.
Diet and hereditary factors obviously are the key components in developing this condition. Foods high in cholesterol and saturated fats are often implicated in hastening or aggravating heart disease. Many disease states such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension have also been shown to increase a persons chances for CAD.
Heart disease usually affects persons over age 60, but can be seen in people who are much younger for various reasons. This disease remains the number one cause of hospitalization and death in the adult population in western society McCance and Huether, The purpose of this literature review is to investigate research dealing with the subject of increased serum iron levels and the prevalence of CAD.
Medical journals were primarily used for research data due to the nature of the subject and the need for in-depth analysis. Many feel that this may be due to the protective effect that estrogen has on the blood vessels of females. There may actually be a direct correlation to reduced serum iron levels due to menses Whereas men ' build-up' iron in the blood, women cleanse themselves of iron buildup on the monthly basis.
Meyers also states that oxidation, the process in which an atom increases its positive charges Miller and Keane,of low density lipoprotein cholesterol is important in atherosclerosis, and since oxidation is catalyzed by iron, it has been hypothesized that the lower iron stores of women reduce their risk of CAD through lessened lipid peroxide, a by-product of oxidation.
Numerous studies have been conducted to actually see if a relationship between serum iron or serum transferrin, serum iron concentration divided by total iron-binding capacityand heart disease or myocardial infarction, heart attacks exists.
Sempos and Looker, used a total of men and women to conduct the first study of its kind on the subject of iron and CAD. Frequent serum iron levels, collected fromand followed up throughshowed the risk of CAD was not related to serum transferrin levels in white men or women.
Indeed, an inverse association of total body iron stores and overall mortality was shown, that is moderate to high serum transferrin associated with lower mortality. In a similar study, men and women, who were randomly chosen, were followed for 14 years having frequent serum iron and total iron binding capacity TIBC levels drawn.
Total Iron Binding Capacity refers to the amount of red bloods cells that are actively bound with iron at any given time. At the end of the study, men and women died from coronary artery disease. It was concluded that there was no relationship between TIBC and coronary mortality observed in men. In women, an inverse although not statistically significant association was found Reunanen et al, Sullivan states that the iron hypothesis, which hypothesizes increased serum iron causes CAD, provides a conceptual tool for study of the mechanisms by which age and gender influence the development of ischemic heart disease.
The assumption that age and gender exert unalterable effects has diverted attention from these strong risk factors, and has led to intense preoccupation with weaker risk factors such as cholesterol. Which as he states, 'has become a rigid and institutional point of view to determine CAD risk'. High iron may indirectly cause damage to coronary arteries due to increased oxidation.
Hauenschild et al, report that the association between nutrition and coronary heart disease is mainly due to the effect of nutrients on serum lipoproteins, the form in which fats are transported in the blood Miller and Keane, Cholesterol intake does not play a very important role for plasma cholesterol although there is a strong interindividual difference in response.
Low iron intake leads to an accelerated uptake of low-density lipoprotein into the macrophage. In another interesting study, Fields and Lewis,investigated low iron levels in rats and the incidence of CAD.
They found that reduction of iron intake reduced blood levels of both triglycerides and cholesterol in rats fed a copper deficient diet containing fructose.
They hypothesized that the combination of high iron, low copper, and fructose may be responsible for increased levels of risk-factor metabolites associated with heart disease. In regard to the above information, the research concludes that it is unlikely that high serum iron or transferrin is the direct cause of CAD.
It may be likely though that having a high iron intake may indirectly effect the progression of heart disease by influencing oxidation of cholesterol and lipoproteins.
No research concluded that the lower incidence of heart disease in women is based in-part by lower serum iron levels due to menses. Research paper and essay writing, free essay topics, sample works Iron Increases Heart Disease Please do not pass this sample essay as your own, otherwise you will be accused of plagiarism.
Our writers can write any custom essay for you! Choletsterol, Lowering the Levels. Heart and Stroke Guide. Risk, Absolute, and Relative. Women And Heart Disease Sample essay topic, essay writing: Women are at risk for these diseases too.Measurement of serum iron levels has no value in making the diagnosis.
Approximately 30% of women younger than 30 years who have haemochromatosis do not have increased transferrin saturation. The genetic mode of transmission and the ethnic background of the iron overload subject may guide the physician in determining the .
Serum-induced enhancement of endothelial phosphatidylserine receptor expression was found as a potential mechanism of increased endothelial EMP uptake and subsequently reduced circulating EMP levels after cardiac stress. for autoimmunity and elevated levels of ferritin in autoimmune disorders have been reported.
Ferritin and iron levels have been evaluated in a few studies in AA patients. While White et al. concluded that female AA patients have an increased incidence of iron deficiency in comparison with the general population, Boffa et al. The International Man's Glossary A-Z: colloquialisms, concepts, explanations, expressions, idioms, quotations, sayings and words.
It was also reported high serum total bilirubin levels could diminish the development of early familial CAD and high levels of bilirubin could act as a protective factor [22,23].
in the HFE gene are associated with increased serum iron levels and net iron accumulation. The aim of this Caucasians with type 2 diabetes: cases with CAD and subjects with no history of CAD.
The CY ry of CAD (Peterlin et al., ). The analysis of HFE.