The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. Inthe Boers began an exodus into African tribal territory, where they founded the republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. The two new republics lived peaceably with their British neighbors untilwhen the discovery of diamonds and gold in the region made conflict between the Boer states and Britain inevitable.
The British consolidated their power over most of the colonies of South Africa in after the Anglo-Zulu Warand attempted to impose an unpopular system of confederation on the region. The Boers protested, and in December they revolted. The battles of BronkhorstspruitLaing's NekSchuinshoogteand Majuba Hill proved disastrous for the British where they found themselves outmaneuvered and outperformed by the highly mobile and skilled Boer marksmen.
With the British commander-in-chief of Natal, George Pomeroy Colleykilled at Majuba, and British garrisons under siege across the entire Transvaal, the British were unwilling to further involve themselves in a war which was already seen as lost. As a result, William Gladstone 's British government signed a truce on 6 March, and in the final peace treaty on 23 Marchgave the Boers self-government in the South African Republic Transvaal under a theoretical British oversight.
It was intended to trigger an uprising by the primarily British expatriate workers known as Uitlandersor in English "Foreigners" in the Transvaal but failed to do so.
Though the raid was ineffective and no uprising took place, it did much to bring about the Second Boer War and the Second Matabele War. It congratulated Paul Kruger for defeating the raid, as well as appearing to recognise the Boer republic and offer support.
The emperor was already perceived as anti-British, and a naval arms race had started between Germany and Britain. Consequently, the telegram alarmed and angered the British.
Second Anglo-Boer War[ edit ] Main article: After a protracted hard-fought war, the two independent republics lost and were absorbed into the British Empire. In all, the war had cost around 75, lives — 22, British soldiers 7, battle casualties, the rest through disease6,—7, Boer Commandos20,—28, Boer civilians, mostly women and children due to disease in concentration campsand an estimated 20, black Africans, Boer allies, who died in their own separate concentration camps.
The last of the Boer forces surrendered in May and the war ended with the Treaty of Vereeniging in the same month. The war resulted in the creation of the Transvaal Colony which in was incorporated into the Union of South Africa. The Boers referred to the two wars as the Freedom Wars.
Those Boers who wanted to continue the fight were known as "bitter-einders" or irreconcilables and at the end of the war a number like Deneys Reitz chose exile rather than sign an undertaking that they would abide by the peace terms.
Over the following decade, many returned to South Africa and never signed the undertaking. Some, like Reitz, eventually reconciled themselves to the new status quo, but others waited for a suitable opportunity to restart the old quarrel.
At the start of World War I the bitter-einders and their allies took part in a revolt known as the Maritz Rebellion. World War I[ edit ] Main article: The Union Defence Force was part of significant military operations against Germany.From October 11, , until May 31, , the Second Boer War (also known as the South African War and the Anglo-Boer War) was fought in South Africa between the British and the Boers (Dutch settlers in southern Africa).
The Boers had founded two independent South African republics (the Orange Free State and the South African .
South Africa: Attempts at Boer consolidation.
Supported by the Orange Free State and some of the Cape Dutch, the South African Republic waged battle against the British Empire for more than two years.
the Boers eventually surrendered to British forces in The Second Boer War (11 October – 31 May ) was fought between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and the Orange Free State, over the Empire's influence in South Africa.
South African War: South African War, also called the Second Boer War or the Second War of Independence, war fought from October 11, , to May 31, , between Great Britain and the two Boer (Afrikaner) republics--the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State--resulting in British victory.
The Boers and British in South Africa, to The Boers made incursions against Basutoland, and in they fought the people there, led ably by their leader, Moshoeshoe.
to fight slavery and to enlist Great Britain in his crusade. In he married the daughter of a British missionary in Africa.